Nation

Wales

Cymru

State
United Kingdom
Area
20.770 km2
Population
3.063.000 inhabitants (2011)
Languages
Welsh, English
Official languages
Welsh and English

Native language speakers
21% (2009)
Main cities
Cardiff, Swansea, Newport
Per capita income
22.175 E (2016)
Native political institutions
Government of Wales
Main religious culture
Protestant Christian
National bank holiday
Dewi Sant (1 March)
Main nationalist parties
PLAID CYMRU
Nationalist share in the native parliament
20% (2016)

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PRESENT-DAY SITUATION OF WELSH

COLIN NOSWORTHY and MAIA JONES “CYMDEITHAS YR IAITH GYMRAEG”. Within Europe, Welsh is the language that most closely resembles Basque in its sociolinguistic situation. At least that has been the…

Kurdistan

Kurdistan

State
Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria
Area
450.000 km2
Population
30.000.000 - 35.000.000 inhabitants
Languages
Kurdish, Arabic, Persian, Aramaic, Armenian, Turkmen
Official languages
Kurdish and Arabic (in Iraq); Kurdish is not official in other states

Native language speakers
60%-80%
Main cities
Mosul (Müsil), Kirkuk (Kerkûk), Diyarbakir (Amed), Arbil (Hewlêr), Kermanshah (Kirmansan)
Native political institutions
Kurdish Government (in Iraq); there is not any Kurdish Government in other states
Main religious culture
Sunni Islamists
National bank holiday
Newroz (21 March)
Main nationalist parties
PATRIOTIC UNION OF KURDISTAN (Iraq), KURDISTAN WORKER'S PARTY (PKK, Turkey), KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF IRAN (Iran)

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KURDISTAN OF IRAQ, INDEPENDENCE IS COMING UP

Despite Iraq’s governmental opposition, the stance held by Western powers to the contrary, and the Kurdish heavy, ongoing involvement in the fight against Islamic State ISIS, the Government of Kurdistan…

Quebec

Québec

State
Canada
Area
1.542.056 km2
Population
8.164.361 inhabitants (2016)
Languages
French, English, indigenous languages
Official languages
French

Native language speakers
94% (French), 3% (Native American languages)
Main cities
Québec, Montréal, Gatineau
Per capita income
33.600 E (2017)
Native political institutions
Government of Quebec
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
National bank holiday
National Holiday of Quebec (24 June)
Main nationalist parties
PARTIT QUÉBÉCOIS, QUÉBEC SOLIDAIRE, COALITION AVENIR QUÉBEC
Nationalist share in the native parliament
75% (2018)

Flanders

Vlaanderen

State
Belgium
Area
13.600 km2
Population
7.693.439 inhabitants (2017)
Languages
Dutch, French
Official languages
Dutch; Dutch and French (Brussels)

Native language speakers
91%
Main cities
Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges
Per capita income
38.210 E (2016)
Native political institutions
Government of Flanders
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
National bank holiday
Guldensporenslag (11 July)
Main nationalist parties
N-VA, VLAAMS BELANG
Nationalist share in the native parliament
45% (2019)

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FLEMISH INDEPENDENTISM RISES

The elections to the Flanders Parliament were held on May 26th, together with the elections to the EU. The results showed an increase for the Flemish independence parties: for the…

BERNARD DAELEMANS, FLEMISH NATIONALIST AND FRIEND OF THE BASQUES: “Language is the driving force behind flemish nationalism”

Bernard Daelemans (Mechelen, 1966) is a language teacher in Brussels. He is also a member of the Executive Board of the VLAAMSE VOLKSBEWEGING popular movement, as well as being the…

South Tyrol

Südtirol

State
Italy
Area
7.400 km2
Population
520.500 inhabitants (2015)
Languages
German, Ladin, Italian
Official languages
German and Italian (throughout the territory), Ladin (in Ladin valleys)

Native language speakers
64% (German), 4% (Ladian)
Main cities
Bozen, Meran, Bruneck
Per capita income
37.561 E (2017)
Native political institutions
Autonomous Government of South Tyrol
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
Main nationalist parties
SÜDTIROLER VOLKSPARTEI (SVP), DIE FREIHEITLICHEN, SÜD-TIROLER FREIHEIT
Nationalist share in the native parliament
55% (2018)

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ELECTION IN SOUTH TYROL: NATIONALISTS DROP

The October 2018 vote in South Tyrol confirms the nationalists’ dominance, while Italian political parties, always a minority in that German speaking country of north Italy, have risen. South Tyrol…

AUSTRIAN NATIONALITY FOR SOUTH TYROL INHABITANTS

  Ties between Austria and Italy strain every so often when the South Tyrol issue heats up again. It has been an on-off dispute, remaining quiet in late times, until now,…

SOUTH TYROL: PROTEST TO THE MAYOR OF BOZEN

Organized by the Süd-Tiroler Freiheit (South Tyrol Freedom), the Tyrolese Nationalist Party, a member of the Tyrolese party handed over a statue portraying the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini to Renzo…

Sardinia

Sardigna

State
Italy
Area
24.090 km2
Population
1.651.793 inhabitants (2017)
Languages
Sardinian, Italian
Official languages
Italian

Native language speakers
65% (2010)
Main cities
Cagliari, Sassari, Quartu Sant'Elena
Per capita income
20.410 E (2016)
Native political institutions
Regional Government
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
National bank holiday
Sa Die de sa Sardigna (28 April)
Main nationalist parties
PARTITO SARDO D'AZIONE, PARTITO DEI SARDI, RUSSOMORI
Nationalist share in the native parliament
17,5% (2019)

Occitania

Occitània

State
France, Italy, Spain
Area
190.000 km2
Population
16.300.000 inhabitants (2016)
Languages
Occitan, French, Italian, Spanish, Catalan
Official languages
French, Italian; Occitan, Catalan and Spanish (Aran valley)

Native language speakers
4%-7% (2010)
Main cities
Marseille, Montpellier, Pau, Toulouse, Nice, Limoges, Bordeaux
Native political institutions
Conselh Generau d'Aran (Aran Valley); in the other regions there are no institutions of their own
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
Main nationalist parties
PARTIT OCCITAN, LIBERTAT!, PARTIT DE LA NACIO OCCITANA
Nationalist share in the native parliament
< 3% (in local and regional elections, there is no own Parliament)

North of Ireland

Tuaisceart Éireann

State
United Kingdom
Area
14.130 km2
Population
1.810.860 inhabitants (2011)
Languages
Irish, English
Official languages
English

Native language speakers
3% (2014)
Main cities
Belfast, Derry
Per capita income
23.620 E (2016)
Native political institutions
Government of Northern Ireland
Main religious culture
Protestant Christian (53%), Catholic Christian (%44)
National bank holiday
Saint Patrick's day (17 March)
Main nationalist parties
SINN FÉIN, SDLP (SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC AND LABOUR PARTY)
Nationalist share in the native parliament
43% (2017)

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NO DEAL ON THE IRISH LANGUAGE LAW IN THE NORTH OF IRELAND

JAKE MAC SIACAIS Director of Forbairt Feirste. Last Friday, 16/2/18, there was renewed hope and huge speculation in the media that a deal around Irish Language legislation was imminent. By…

CURRENT STATUS OF LANGUAGE AND CULTURE DISPUTES IN NORTH EAST OF IRELAND

JAKE MAC SIACAIS Director of Forbairt Feirste. ‘Cultural Supremacy’is a term that has been bandied about with increasing frequency by the major Pro-Union party in the British Controlled North Eastern…

NORTH OF IRELAND: GOVERNMENT IN DEADLOCK

Six months have elapsed since the Northern Ireland election, resulting in a rise of the Irish nationalists (Sinn Fein). During that period, the parties gathering most votes (unionist DUP and…

Sami People

Sápmi

State
Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia
Area
388.000 km2
Population
2.000.000 inhabitants (approximately 100.000 belonging to the Sami ethnic group)
Languages
Sami language, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish and Russian
Official languages
Sami language (only across the northern regions of Norway and Sweden), Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish and Russian

Native language speakers
1,5% in all Lapland
Main cities
Tromso, Murmansk, Kiruna, Alta
Native political institutions
Autonomous Government of Lapland in Norway, Sweden and Finland (only across the northern regions)
Main religious culture
Lutheran and Orthodox Christians
National bank holiday
National Day of the Samis (6 february)
Parliaments
Norway (in Karasjok), Sweden (in Kiruna), Finland (in Inari). The native governments hold attributions in the cultural domain only.

Galicia

Galiza

State
Spain
Area
29.575 km2
Population
2.735.000 inhabitants (2015)
Languages
Galician, Spanish
Official languages
Galician, Spanish

Native language speakers
85% (2012)
Main cities
A Coruña, Vigo, Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Ourense, Pontevedra
Per capita income
22.495 E (2017)
Native political institutions
Government of Galicia
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
National bank holiday
Saint Jame's Day (25 July)
Main nationalist parties
BNG
Nationalist share in the native parliament
13% (2016)

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NEW GALICIAN DAILY IN THE PIPELINE

The history of Galician language press is very long, tracing back to the early 20th century’s renowned newspaper A Nosa Terra. Notwithstanding its prolific past, present-day situation is bleak, with…

VIA GALEGA, NEW POPULAR NATIONAL MOVEMENT IN GALICIA

Promotion of national awareness and demand for the right to self-determination. These are the main goals of VIA GALEGA, the new Galician popular movement presented in public on 3 March…

MARCOS MACEIRA, PRESIDENT OF THE A MESA POLA NORMALIZACION LINGUISTICA: “The development of our sense of national identity will also spur the use of our language”

The historian Marcos Maceira (Santiago de Compostela, 1978) is the president of the A Mesa Pola Normalizacion Linguistica. He combines his president post there with his job as a schoolteacher….

Frisia

Fryslân

State
Netherlands
Area
3.350 km2
Population
646.705 inhabitants (2010)
Languages
Frisian, Dutch
Official languages
Frisian, Dutch

Native language speakers
65% (2005)
Main cities
Leeuwarden, Heerenveen, Drachten
Per capita income
25.945 E (2016)
Native political institutions
Autonomous Government of Frisia
Main religious culture
Protestant Christian
Main nationalist parties
FRISIAN NATIONAL PARTY (FRYSKE NASJONALE PARTIJ)
Nationalist share in the native parliament
10% (2019)

Faroe Islands

Foroyar

State
Denmark
Area
1.399 km2
Population
48.372 inhabitants (2010)
Languages
Faroese, Danish
Official languages
Faroese, Danish

Native language speakers
98%
Main cities
Tórshavn, Klaksvík
Per capita income
44.600 E (2015)
Native political institutions
Autonomous Government of Faroe
Main religious culture
Protestant Christian
National bank holiday
San Olaf (Olavsoka) (29 July)
Main nationalist parties
TJÓÔDVELDI, FÓLKA FLOKKURIN
Nationalist share in the native parliament
48% (2019)

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THE YEAR OF THE FAROE ISLANDS

2018 will be a decisive year for the Faroe Islands under Danish sovereignty. Next 25 April, the Faroese will vote a new Constitution. If it is approved, the archipelago will…

Corsica

Corsica

State
France
Area
8.680 km2
Population
316.250 inhabitants (2014)
Languages
Corsican, French
Official languages
French

Native language speakers
40% (2014)
Main cities
Ajaccio, Bastia, Corti
Per capita income
23.565 E (2016)
Native political institutions
Corsican Assembly
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
National bank holiday
A Festa di a Nazione (8 December)
Main nationalist parties
FEMU A CORSICA, CORSICA LIBERA
Nationalist share in the native parliament
65% (2017) (In the Corsican Assembly)

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CORSICA, THE START OF A NEW POLITICAL CYCLE

We are inclined to think that the December 2017 Corsica election is not only a triumph of nationalism, but it will also unleash political shockwaves. The historic results gained by…

NATIONALIST SUCCESS IN CORSICA

The Basque Country and other many places have seen ongoing debate related to participation in elections. Should a National Liberation Movement participate in a statewide election despite knowing that these…

Cornwall

Kernow

State
United Kingdom
Area
3.563 km2
Population
536.000 inhabitants (2014)
Languages
Cornish, English
Official languages
English

Native language speakers
0,5%
Main cities
Truro, Penzance
Per capita income
19.550 E (2016)
Main religious culture
Protestant Christian
National bank holiday
San Piran (5 March)
Main nationalist parties
MEBYON KERNOW
Nationalist share in the native parliament
3% (2017) (In the Regional Council, there is no own Parliament)

Catalan Countries

Països Catalans

State
Spain, Andorra, France
Area
65.000 km2
Population
14.435.023 inhabitants (2009)
Languages
Catalan, Spanish, French, Occitan (Aran Valley)
Official languages
Catalan (Catalonia, Valencian Country, Balearic Islands, Andorra), Spanish (Catalonia, Valencian Country, Balearic Islands), French (Northern Catalonia), Occitan (Aran Valley, with Catalan and Spanish)

Native language speakers
65% (2014)
Main cities
Barcelona, València, Palma, Perpinyà, Hospitalet, Badalona
Per capita income
25.850 E (2017)
Native political institutions
Government of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya), Government of Valencian Country (Generalitat valenciana), Government of Balearic Islands
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
Main nationalist parties
PDeCAT, ERC, CUP, PSM-ENTESA, BLOC NACIONALISTA VALENCIÀ
Nationalist share in the native parliament
52% (Parliament of Catalonia), 10% (Parliament of Balearic Islands), 10% (Parliament of Valencian Country) (in 2019)

Catalonia

Catalunya

State
Spain
Area
31.900 Km2
Population
7.516.254 inhabitants (2016)
Languages
Catalan, Spanish, Occitan (Aran valley)
Official languages
Catalan, Spanish, Occitan
Native language speakers
78% (2013)
Main cities
Barcelona, Hospitalet, Badalona, Lleida, Tarragona, Girona
Per capita income
29.930€ (2017)
Native political institutions
Government of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya)
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
National bank holiday
Diada (11 September)
Main nationalist parties
PDeCAT, ERC, CUP
Nationalist share in the native Parliament
52% (2017)

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ANNA ARQUÉ, THE POWER OF CATALONIA’S RESILIENCE: “THE GOVERNMENT OF CATALONIA MISMANAGED THE VICTORY OF 1st OCTOBER 2017”

It is not an easy task to make a brief introduction of Anna Arqué (Lleida, 1972). Graduate in Business and Marketing Sciences, vice rector of the Summer University of Catalonia,…

WHAT IS AND WHAT DOES THE COUNCIL FOR THE CATALAN REPUBLIC DO? TEN QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Vilaweb website, 2018-12-09. The political situation in Catalonia is red-hot. The President of the Catalan Government, the Generalitat, and some of its ministers are in exile, other are detained, with…

CATALONIA: CHRONICLE OF A REFERENDUM

On 1 October 2017, the independence referendum was held in Catalonia. The referendum is a paramount democratic practice and unequivocal proof of political intelligence rarely seen in the world to…

CATALONIA AT THE CROSSROADS

1 October 2017 marked an important commitment of the Catalans with the ballot box. A self-determination referendum on that date questioned the Catalans on their decision about the future of…

Brittany

Breizh

State
France
Area
34.000 km2
Population
4.582.000 inhabitants (2014)
Languages
Breton, French
Official languages
French

Native language speakers
6% (2007)
Main cities
Nantes, Rennes, Brest
Per capita income
24.430 E (2016)
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
National bank holiday
Gouel Erwan (19 May)
Main nationalist parties
BREIZHISTANCE, PARTI BRETON/STROLLAD BREIZH
Nationalist share in the native parliament
1%-5% (In local and regional elections, there is no own Parliament)

Basque Country

Euskal Herria

State
Spain, France
Area
20.900 km2
Population
3.142.982 inhabitants (2017)
Languages
Basque, Spanish, French
Official languages
Basque and Spanish (Basque autonomous community and North of Navarre), Spanish (South of Navarre), French (Northern Basque Country or Iparralde)

Native language speakers
28,5% (2012)
Main cities
Bilbo, Gasteiz, Donostia, Iruñea, Baiona, Barakaldo
Per capita income
31.925 E (2017)
Native political institutions
Basque Government (Eusko Jaurlaritza), Government of Navarre, Agglomeration Community of the Northern Basque Country
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
National bank holiday
Aberri Eguna (Easter)
Main nationalist parties
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV), EH BILDU, GEROA BAI, EH BAI
Nationalist share in the native parliament
61% (Parliament of the Basque autonomous community), 34% (Parliament of Navarre) (in 2019)

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THE IKASTOLAS SHAKE THE JACOBIN FRENCH EDUCATION SYSTEM

NOTE TO OUR INTERNATIONAL READERS: The Northern Basque Country (Labourd, Lower Navarre and Soule) is the part of the Basque Country under French domination; It represents 15% of the surface…

EUSKARALDIA: LIVING IN BASQUE FOR 11 DAYS

We have bore witness to a new initiative called Euskaraldia in favour of Basque language held in late 2018 throughout all the Basque Country. All Basque speakers have been invited…

THE NORTHERN BASQUE COMMUNITY UP FOR BASQUE LANGUAGE OFFICIALITY

On 23 June, the Basque Agglomeration Community, the only official institution regrouping the whole Northern Basque Country, took a step of high symbolic value, officially declaring Basque a native language….

ETA CONFIRMS ITS TERMINATION

NAZIOGINTZA’S communiqué: It is our obligation towards our international audience to make it clear first off that our words in this article had to be carefully chosen because of the…

JOXE MANUEL ODRIOZOLA, BASQUE LANGUAGE ACTIVIST AND WRITER: “Unfortunately, there is not strong evidence anywhere attesting to a Basque national language policy”

We agreed to meet Joxe Manuel Odriozola in San Sebastian on a rainy Winter afternoon. A retired Basque teacher with a long experience at his job, he has not onlyt…

NEW INITIATIVE TO PROMOTE THE USE OF BASQUE

28% of the population in the Basque Country can speak Basque. However, that percentage is not homogeneous. While in some areas of the Basque Country that rate rises to upwards…

Scotland

Alba

State
United Kingdom
Area
78.800 km2
Population
5.313.000 inhabitants (2011)
Languages
Scottish Gaelic, English
Official languages
Scottish Gaelic, English

Native language speakers
1%
Main cities
Edinburgh, Glasgow
Per capita income
28.130 E (2016)
Native political institutions
Government of Scotland
Main religious culture
Protestant Christian
National bank holiday
Saint Andrew's Day (30 November)
Main nationalist parties
SNP (Scottish National Party), Scottish Green Party
Nationalist share in the native parliament
53,50% (2016)

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SCOTLAND, WAITING FOR A SECOND CHANCE

ROBIN McALPINE Director of “COMMON WEAL” Five years have gone since the self-determination referendum of Scotland, lost by pro-independence advocates only by a narrow margin. However, Brexit has offered a…

Aosta Valley

Vallé d'Aoste. Val d'Aoûta

State
Italy
Area
3.263 km2
Population
128.810 inhabitants (2011)
Languages
Franco-Provençal, French, Italian
Official languages
Italian and French

Native language speakers
40% (Franco-Provençal), 65% (French) (2006)
Main cities
Aosta, Saint-Vincent
Per capita income
34.150 E (2016)
Native political institutions
Autonomous Government of Aosta
Main religious culture
Catholic Christian
Main nationalist parties
UNION VALDOTÂINE, UNION VALDOTÂINE PROGRESSISTE, AUTONOMIE LIBERTÉ PARTICIPATION ÉCOLOGIE
Nationalist share in the native parliament
60% (2018)