Jose Mari Esparza Zabalegi
An unpublished chapter in our history has recently come to light: during the First Carlist War (1833-1840), the mythical Basque general Zumalakarregi proposed a Basque Federal Republic for the four southern territories of Euskal Herria (the Basque Country). The project of an independent Basque state south of the Pyrenees is cited in a document from 1834 that has now been found, and is corroborated by information that also appeared on that date in the Swiss press. The first Carlist war was not a dynastic war, as Spanish historians tell us, but a war in defence of Basque fueros (traditional rights) and freedoms. The document now found attests to this.