Historian. University of Nevada, Center for Basque Studies.
In this article, the historian Xabier Irujo elaborates on a number of Basque independence proclamations since the times of the French Revolution to our days.
In 1789, for one, the Estates-General of Navarre, reunited in Donibane Garazi, outlined clearly that Navarre was not part of the kingdoms of Castile or France, emphasizing likewise that the Navarrese were neither Castilian nor French. They also made it clear that Basque was the language of the Navarrese and that they made up a nation along with fellow territories of the Basque Country.
In 1855, following the First Carlist War, the book entitled Vascongados was released, which advocated for an interruption of the political bonds of the Basques with the Spanish, stressing also the necessity to regain independence.
It is well known the independence model put forward by Sabin Arana for Biscay and the rest of Basque territories in the late 19th century. In his article, Irujo also brings the focus to the harsh repression sustained by Arana and his followers.
Lastly, he reminds us that Jose Antonio Agirre, the incumbent mayor of Getxo at the time, proclaimed the Basque Republic from the town hall of Getxo, just hours after the establishment of the Spanish Republic (April 1931)