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JOSE INAZIO LOPEZ DE LUZURIAGA Musicologist. Retired professor of the Conservatory of Donostia-San Sebastian. Abstract: In this article, the author musicologist Jose Inazio Lopez de Luzuriaga provides full support to the proposal to proclaim the “Gernikako Arbola” (The Tree of Gernika) composed by Jose Maria Iparragirre the official anthem of the Basques, so joining the manifesto recently endorsed by a significant number...
JOSU ALBERO. Basque Wikimedians User Group. To examine the vitality of a language, sociolinguists frequently consult an index: the Calvet barometer. This barometer measures the health of a language by means of certain parameters: the number of speakers, its official status, the weight the language carries in the educational field, the number of books published in that language, its fertility (i.e...
LUKEN ETXABE. When we the Basques speak of independence, Ireland is usually the first nation coming to mind. We share common traits in some way, i.e. we both have a minorized language, our Country is divided into two parts, an armed organization, etc. But would we really wish to model ourselves after Ireland in order to guarantee our identity or...
ERIC ROULET Occitan Teacher. Occitania is the biggest nation without a state in Europe is. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea in most of what nowadays is southern France, an Italian region called “Valadas”, and in Spain, in the Aran Valley. What makes Occitania united as a nation is the common language. Although historically Occitania has never...
JOXE ARAKAMA LOPEZ DE GEREÑU. Abstract: The author describes in the article the way colonization processes unfold. Conquest paves the grounds for colonization, i.e. a conquest provides the platform initiating the process to alienate a people from their language, culture, values and world view. A people subjected to colonization is not just stripped of its own language, culture and values, it...
JOXE ARAKAMA LOPEZ DE GEREÑU Abstract: Conquest is any action implemented by means of violence, deceit or scheme against a people, the vilest action pursued by a mighty group against any peoples, a crime against humanity. The author of the article emphasizes that the Basque Country was subjected to conquest. During the Middle Ages, Navarre, the natural kingdom of the Basques, came...
IÑAKI LOPEZ DE LUZURIAGA. Abstract: The totem of a historic Spanish unity crumbles in the subject addressed in this article by its author: the resolution passed by the General Assembly of Gipuzkoa to create a Republic of Gipuzkoa, out of Spain. Gipuzkoa is one of the seven constituent territories of the Basque Country, showing the highest ratio of Basque speakers and...
MIKEL URKOLA ELEIZEGI. Abstract: In this article, Basque university professor and author of a number of books Mikel Urkola, accuses the Spanish State of neither complying with nor respecting some international treaties it has signed. In particular, in 1977 it ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of the UN (1966) and in 1978, introduced through Articles 10 and...
Diarmuid Breatnach Irish writer The English occupation of Ireland made a determined effort to eradicate the Irish language from Ireland and in 1366 promulgated the Statutes of Kilkenny to forbid “the degenerate English” (colonists) “who are become more Irish than the Irish themselves” from speaking Irish, dressing in Irish style, playing Irish games, etc. Outside of the city areas, the laws...
XABIER LAKARRA BEROITZ. Abstract: Our collaborator Xabier Lakarra raises here the issue of two opposing linguistic models, Estonia and Ireland, or as he puts it, a model (Estonia) and an anti-model (Ireland). Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. At that moment, a third of the population spoke Russian, with no command of Estonian. However, that did not stop the...